The first stage in a modern 3-step+
charging system. The output current
of the battery charger is 100 % during
this stage, while voltage depends on
the power remaining in the battery. The
bulk phase is followed by the absorption
Bureau Veritas is a French classification
society for shipping, passenger vessels
and some large yachts. The requirements
in terms of safety and functionality
are stringent and approval is required
by many insurance companies. Most
A loss of voltage resulting
from the resistance of the
cable. The losses also depend on the
Marking placed on a product by
manufacturers or importers to declare
that it meets EU safety, health and
environmental requirements. These
requirements are derived from European
product directives, which have been
incorporated into the national legislation
of most EU member states. The CE mark
therefore shows compliance with a law
and is not informal advice. It should
be visible on the outside of equipment
and suppliers have to make available a
declaration stating which requirements
of the CE marking the equipment meets.
Voltage used to charge batteries. On average, it amounts to 14.4 volt or 28.8 volt
during the absorption phase and 13.25 volt and 26.5 volt during the float phase,
both at 25 °C.
A device that combines a battery charger, an inverter and a transfer system in one.
Cos phi or power factor
Specifies in AC systems the degree to which current is out of phase with voltage:
The lower this value, the larger the discrepancy. In a heating element, for instance,
the current is in phase with the voltage, so the cos phi is 1. In a motor, however,
there is a divergence, and cos phi tends to be 0.8 or sometimes 0.6. The lower the
cos phi, the more current is required to supply a given amount of power.
The flow of electrons through a circuit. Electric current is measured in amps.
The theorectical discharging of a battery from 100 % to 0 %, and recharging back
from 0 % to 100 % in one cycle. Twice discharging to 50 % and fully recharging is
also one cycle, as is four times discharging to 75 % and fully recharging again. This
is all theory however: In practice a battery is discharged not more than 50 %.